Natural Sciences

15 Examples of sedimentary rocks

Sedimentary rocks

It is a type of rock that is formed through the accumulation of sediments made up of particles of various sizes transported by various means, which can be water, wind or ice.

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These particles are subjected to both chemical and physical processes that result in consolidated materials. This type of rocks can be formed in various ways and in various areas such as river mouths or their banks, lakes, ravine bottoms, seas, among others.

The sedimentary rocks are arranged in strata or layers. The geological processes that act on it, weathering it, transporting it and depositing it in various spaces depending on the transport that channels them.

In this sense, the formation of this type of rocks is due in part to the contribution of plant or animal organic agents and they can be found up to 10 km below the earth’s crust, appearing in a loose or compact form, that is, united layer by layer. .

The 75% of the earth ‘s surface is composed of this type of rock forming a sedimentary cover character, found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. However, it should be noted that compared to igneous rocks, the amount of cover on the earth’s surface is minimal.

Sedimentary rock formation

This type of rock has its origin in the formation of magma that later solidifies and crystallizes through a natural cooling process, turning into igneous rock. Subsequently, an erosion of the rock is generated resulting in the sedimentation from which the sedimentary rock arises.

Examples of sedimentary rocks

  1. Limestone: sedimentary rock composed of calcium carbonate. Its color can vary being brown, black or white.
  2. Shale: rock formed by clastic dendrites and clay and silt particles.
  3. Breccia: dendritic rock composed of small angular fragments held together by a glue or natural cement.
  4. Coal
  5. Loam : rock composed of clay and calcite and its color is generally whitish.
  6. Sandstone: dendritic rock composed of clasts the size of sand and with varied colors.
  7. Phosphate rocks: they are composed of derivatives of phosphorous atoms .
  8. Organic: they are formed from diverse cellular material that comes from living beings .
  9. Coral
  10. Silicea: made up of organic silica particles that originate from a combination of oxygen and silicon. Its main characteristic is hardness and compaction.
  11. Dolomite
  12. Limonite
  13. Diatomite
  14. Laterite
  15. Chalcedony

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