Natural Sciences

70 Characteristics of the ecosystems of Mexico


The ecosystem can be called as an entire biological system formed by a large community of related living beings in a common natural environment.

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It is a unit composed of interdependent organisms that intervene in a common habitat.

Ecosystem of Mexico

Mexico is known for being one of the countries that is part of the group of countries (17 countries) with the greatest biodiversity in the world.

Its great variety in ecosystems formed by its different reliefs, biogeographic zones and climate make Mexico a naturally rich space.

In this space we will talk about the various ecosystems found in Mexico and their characteristics.

Characteristics of the ecosystems of Mexico:


  1. They are ecosystems where water predominates among their spaces and inhabitants.
  2. Its waters are shallow.
  3. The water table is found on the earth’s surface.
  4. Wetlands can be: marine, lake, marsh, riparian and estuarine.
  5. There are also artificial wetlands.

Tropical Evergreen Forest

  1. It has a warm humid climate
  2. Its rainy seasons are very rare
  3. Its temperature ranges between 20 ° and 26 ° C.
  4. It has a wide variety of flowers.
  5. It has numerous species.
  6. There is a diversity of orchids.
  7. Ferns predominate in their spaces, being in the same way varied.
  8. It has trees over 25 meters high.
  9. Epiphytes and lianas predominate in these forests.

Medium Jungle

  1. It has dense forests between 15 and 40 meters high.
  2. The crowns of its trees are attached to the canopy.
  3. During the drought at least half of its trees lose their leaves.
  4. Temperatures range from 0 ° to 28 ° C.
  5. We can find in it a diversity in its vegetation.
  6. There are trees such as red cedar, parota, among others.
  7. Its geographical distribution is discontinuous.
  8. Currently, much of the territory of the middle forest is used for agriculture.

Thorny Forest

  1. It is called in this way because it is made up mostly of thorny trees.
  2. It occupies an estimated 5 percent of the Mexican territory.
  3. Its delimitation is complicated to carry out because it is located in several sectors.
  4. Their temperatures range between 17 ° and 29 ° C.
  5. The dry season lasts between 6 to 9 months.
  6. Currently this ecosystem has been modified by agricultural spaces.

Xerophilous scrub

  1. It includes arid and semi-arid shrub zones .
  2. Its climate is desert , dry steppe and temperate with infrequent rains.
  3. The temperature of this type of ecosystem ranges between 12 ° and 26 ° C.
  4. Its vegetation is characteristic of arid areas.
  5. It is an area that is almost virgin; the hand of man has not intervened in it other than to steal specimens, but not on large scales.

Low jungle

  1. These areas are characteristic for their low climate.
  2. It has a temperature that ranges between 20 ° and 29 ° C.
  3. It has very marked rainy and drought seasons .
  4. Its trees can measure up to 15 meters.
  5. We can find diversity in its vegetation. Trees such as copal, pochote, and long cacti.
  6. Its extensions are large and almost continuous.
  7. Currently the low forest is being affected by the hand of man.

The Pasture

  1. In this ecosystem, grasses, better known as grass, predominate.
  2. The absence of vegetation is remarkable.
  3. Trees are scarce, standing alone, near streams and rivers.
  4. Its dry season can last from 6 to 9 months.
  5. Its climate is desert.

bed sheet

  1. It has a tropical climate
  2. There may be the presence of rains in summer.
  3. During the rainy season , the soils are flooded.
  4. In times of drought , soils harden and crack.
  5. This ecosystem is found along the Pacific coast and the coastal plain.
  6. It is an area used for livestock and sugarcane planting.

Encino Forest

  1. Trees are present between 6 and 30 meters high.
  2. This ecosystem is found in almost all of Mexico.
  3. Its climate is varied.
  4. The temperature ranges between 10 ° and 26 ° C.
  5. Its relationship is close with the pine forests.

Coniferous forest

  1. It is found in mountainous, semi-cold and temperate regions.
  2. Its diverse ecological and floral is varied.
  3. There is a large presence of pine and fir forests.
  4. Its location is in various mountain ranges of the country.
  5. Coniferous and oak forests are the most important in the country.

High mountain meadow

  1. It has grass a few centimeters high.
  2. Its location is limited to volcanoes and high mountains.
  3. It is generally located 3500 meters above sea level.
  4. It is found in the Mexican highlands and in the plains.

Fog Forest

  1. Its climate is humid and temperate.
  2. Its temperature is very low, and can reach 0 ° C.
  3. Its rainy seasons can last from 8 to 12 months.
  4. Its distribution is discontinuous throughout the Sierra Madre.
  5. It is a rather delicate and fragile ecosystem, so it deserves a corresponding special attention.

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