Natural Sciences

Classification of Matter

The matter is all that occupies a place in the universe. It has characteristics like weight, density, volume, and more. The classification of matter is subject to the chemical and physical changes it can undergo, its components and other factors.

Matter is also called “substance”, and this refers to the components of objects. So matter is everywhere and in various states.

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Characteristics and properties of matter

Matter is made up of atoms, of which there are 118 different ones, that is, of the elements (pure substances) that we find in the periodic table.

The chemical properties of matter are

    • pH. Level of acidity or alkalinity that is responsible, among other things, for the corrosiveness of acids.
    • Reactivity. It is about the ability to combine with other substances.
  • Flammability . Substances, which in the presence of a heat source or due to a chemical reaction, can produce an explosion or flames.
  • Radioactivity . It is the release of particles or energy in the form of radiation, due to the instability of substances.

On the other hand, the physical properties of matter are: temperature, state of aggregation (solid, liquid and gaseous), conductivity, melting point (temperature where matter goes from solid to liquid) and boiling point (temperature where the matter goes from a liquid to a gaseous state).

Classification of matter

Matter is classified into two large groups: pure and composite, which in turn have other subsets of matters.

Pure substances: they are not mixed with other substances. They have only one chemical structure.

  • Chemical elements. They are formed by a single type of atom, which is why they are also called simple pure substances. These elements cannot be decomposed into smaller ones.
  • Compounds . They are made up of two or more elements that can only be separated by chemical processes, that is, through reactions.

Compound substances: its chemical structure is made up of two or more pure substances.

  • Homogeneous. They are mixtures in which it is not distinguished which are the substances that compose it.
  • Heterogeneous. They are non-uniform mixtures in which you can see at a glance what their components are.

On the other hand, we can also mention another classification:

    • Living matter. It is about humans, animals and plants as long as they are alive.
    • Inert matter. Lifeless objects or beings.
    • Organic material. They are those that are related to life, they can be remains of animals or plants mixed with other substances.
    • Inorganic material. They are the elements of nature that are not related to life.

Examples of classification of matter

  • Water (H2O) (Compounds)
  • Oxygen (O) (Elements)
  • Carbon (C) (Elements)
  • Salt water (Homogeneous)
  • Water and sand (Heterogeneous)
  • People (Living)
  • Stone (Inert)

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