What is the Difference between Ground State and Excited State?

the basic difference between ground state and excited state is that in the ground state, electrons are in positions of the lowest energy possible while in the Excited state, the electron is in a temporary position of higher energy than the ground state. as it is very unstable so quickly moves to the ground state.


In physics, the ground state of a system is its lowest-energy state; and is known as the zero-point energy. An excited state is any state of a system with higher energy than the ground state. In quantum mechanics, an excited state is any energy state that is higher in energy than the ground state of the system.

Excited states arise when the system absorbs energy, such as when an electron is excited from the ground state to a higher energy level by the absorption of a photon.

Ground state Excited state
It is low energy and stable state of an atom. It is a high-energy and unstable state of an atom.
It has a comparatively less number of unpaired electrons. It has a comparatively greater number of unpaired electrons.

What is the Ground-state?

In quantum mechanics, the ground state of a system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as zero-point energy. An atom in its ground state has the lowest possible energy that it can have. All atoms are in their ground state at absolute zero temperature. In a solid, the ground state is the state in which all atoms are in their lowest energy state.

What is an Excited state?

An excited state is a state of higher energy than the ground state. The excited state is usually unstable and will eventually return to the ground state, releasing the excess energy as a photon.


When an atom is in its ground state, it is at its lowest possible energy level. An atom in an excited state has more energy than an atom in its ground state. The extra energy can come from heat, light, or electricity. When an atom absorbs energy, it becomes excited. When it loses energy, it returns to its ground state.

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