The Major Difference between Peroxisomes and Glyoxisomes is that Peroxisomes have a lipid bilayer membrane that controls what enters and exists them and have urate oxidase crystalline core while Glyoxisomes are specialized Peroxisomes having a single membrane and have a matrix ( Internal content) finely granular.
What are Peroxisomes?
Peroxisomes are cytoplasmic organelles. De-Duve and coworkers isolated peroxisome from liver cells and from some other tissues. These are present in both animals and plants. They are also found in protozoa, yeast, and many types of cells of higher plants.
Structure of Peroxisomes
These are enclosed in a single membrane. Their size is 0.5 pm in diameter. They contain H202 — producing enzymes like oxidases and catalases. They also contain some oxidative (which cause oxidation) enzymes like peroxidase, Catalase, glycolic acid oxidase, and some other enzymes.
Function of Peroxisomes
Peroxisomes are involved ¡n the formation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H202). The word peroxisome is derived from hydrogen peroxide.
What are Glyoxisomes?
Glyoxisomes are cytoplasmic organelles. These are present only in plant cells. These are most abundant in plant seedlings. Glyoxisomes are present only for a short period of germination of seed. These are present in lipid-rich seeds like castor oil and soybeans. These are absent in lipid-poor seeds like peas.
These are membranous bound organelles. They contain enzyme-like glycolic acid oxidase, Catalase, and a number of other enzymes that are not present in animal cells.
Functions of Glyoxisomes
The germinating plant or seedling depends on the stored fatty acids of the seed for obtaining energy. These germinating seedlings convert the stored fatty acid into carbohydrates.
It is one of the primary activities of seeds during germination. This conversion takes place through a cycle called the glyoxylate cycle. The enzymes of this cycle are present in Glyoxisomes.
Glyoxisomes play an important role in both catabolic and anabolic pathways in plants. Glyoxisome breaks the fatty acid into succinate in lipid-rich seeds like castor beans.