Human Digestive System Parts and their Functions

What is the path that food takes through the digestive system in your body?


Human Digestive system parts are liver, glands, stomach, intestines, gallbladder and mouth etc. There are totally 6 main functions of Human Digestive System. These processes or functions are:

  • Ingestion
  • Motility
  • Secretion
  • Digestion
  • Absorption
  • ExcretionHuman Digestive System Parts

The Digestive System Parts are mentioned and explained below with the functions of all these parts. The Secretion is also mentioned in the table.





Oral Cavity

TeethMastication, Communication.None
Lips and CheeksManipulation of food, hold food in position between teeth, communication.Saliva from buccal glands (only mucous).
TongueManipulation of food, hold food in position between teeth, cleaning of the teeth and the taste.Some mucous and small amount of serous fluid.

Salivary Glands

Parotid GlandsSecretion of saliva through ducts to superior and posterior part of oral cavity.Saliva with amylase.
Sub-Mandibular GlandsSecretion of saliva in floor of oral cavity.Saliva with amylase and mucous.
Sublingual GlandsSecretion of saliva in floor of oral cavity.Mucous saliva only.


Deglutition (movement of food from oral cavity to esophagus).Some mucous.


Movement of food by peristalsis from pharynx to stomach.Mucous.


(Mechanical mixing of food, enzymatic digestion, storage, absorption)

Mucous cellsProtection of stomach wall by mucous protection.Mucous
Parietal cellsDecrease in stomach PH.Hydrochloric Acid
Zymogen cellsProtein Digestion.Pepsinogen
Endocrine cellsRegulation of secretion and motility.Gastrin

Accessory Gland

LiverSecretion of bile into duodenum.Bile
Gall BladderBile storage, absorb water and electrolytes into concentrate bile.None of its own secretion stores and concentrates bile.
pancreasSecretion of several digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ion into duodenum.Trypsin, chemotrysin, pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, bicarbonates.

Small Intestine (Read More)

Duodenal glandsProtectionMucous
Globlet cellsProtectionMucous
Absorptive cellsSecretion of digestive enzyme and absorption of digestive materials.Enterokinase, amylase, peptidases, sucrose, maltase, lactase, lipase.
Endocrine cellsRegulation of secretion and motility.Gastrin, secretin.

Large Intestine (Read More)

Globlet cellAbsorption, storage and food movement, protection.Mucous.


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