Drought refers to a period of water scarcity, which generally has a certain period of time. The main characteristic of this stage is the scarce influx of water , being in this sense, below normal or usual levels, and thus making the normal development of animal, human and plant life impossible.
One of the main causes of drought is the lack of rain , being known in this sense as meteorological drought. When this type of drought spreads, it becomes a hydrological drought, affecting the water resources of the region where this phenomenon occurs and in this way it generates effects on the habitual consumption of this liquid.
When the drought spreads and reaches extreme levels, it can cause a situation of aridity that ends in the desertification of the territory. This affects both human, plant and animal life.
The main factors that influence drought are:
- The lack of rainfall, product of atmospheric changes.
- Climatic oscillations that occur periodically.
- It is important to note that one of the main factors is the intervention of the hand of man in an excessive way in nature. Actions such as deforestation, pollution of lakes, rivers and lagoons, among other things, contribute to the deterioration of the environment and consequently the consequences as strong as is the case of drought.
Consequences of drought
- Decrease in both agricultural and livestock activity.
- Dehydration, malnutrition, among others.
- Famine, product of the decrease in agricultural activity.
- Damage to the natural habitat.
- Migration of people and animals from the affected area to more optimal areas for living.
- Rising of dust, generating desert storms.
- Social conflicts.
Types of drought
- Meteorological drought: refers to the amount of rainfall that falls in a lower proportion than usual.
- Agricultural drought : refers to the shortage of water that affects the production and planting of crops in a considered way, this drought can be meteorological or hydrological.
- Hydrological drought : this type of drought refers to the considerable decrease in natural water reserves, such as lakes, rivers, aquifers, among others.
Examples of drought
- Heat waves in 2018 in Europe
- The drought in Argentina in 2018
- The phenomenon of the child
- Drought in Australia in 2018
- Cape Town drought in South Africa 2018
- Drought in india in 1966
- Drought in the soviet union in 1921
- 1920 drought in the people’s republic of China
- Drought in Brazil in 2000