Natural Sciences


The erosion is the loss or degradation of the ground caused by water currents, strong wind, heat or cold (that causes dehydration of the soil) or due to activities of the man in a given place.

The term also applies to rocks . These elements of nature also suffer erosion by the same factors as the soil, only with different consequences.

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How does it happen?

The most common is that a stream of water , either due to heavy precipitation or because a river left its channel, produces erosion by dragging its surface . With this, the humus present is removed , so there may be a loss of nutrients that prevents that soil from being fertile again.

On the other hand, strong wind can also damage the ground surface. Little by little it will destroy the organic remains on the surface causing damage, often irreparable.


This phenomenon is not only characterized by the deformation of the soil surface, but also affects the fertility and chemical structure of the land in question. In other words, the amount of minerals decreases, also organic matter.

Plants do not grow in eroded soil and it is possible that works cannot be built due to their possible instability.

Vegetation plays a fundamental role in preventing soil degradation. Especially lichens can “seek” the water present in deep layers to help them regenerate. Also, plants function as protectors against wind and water. At least they prevent damage to rocks and soil from being deep.

Types of erosion

  • Natural and progressive. It can last for millions of years. The factors that help to produce this phenomenon are rain, snow seeing and temperature.
  • Hydric . It is generated by water through the dripping of rain or currents that drag the surface of the ground.
  • Wind . It is one where the wind carries very small particles that collide with some rock to the point of dividing into more particles that collide with other rocks or soil.
  • Superficial soil erosion. It refers to erosion by splashing (from rainwater, for example), laminar, in furrows and gullies (channels that have been opened in the ground because they have slopes and water has run over them).

Examples of factors causing erosion

  • Lithology
  • Construction of structures
  • Tectonics
  • Volcanism
  • Topography
  • Temperature
  • Precipitation
  • Organisms
  • Anthropic activity.

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