The objective of having a self-protection plan is to prevent and control risks to people and property in a particular area. With this, in addition, it is expected that the activities of the place are carried out without major inconveniences, all within the framework of the corresponding civil code.
Example of a self-protection plan
DOCUMENT I: RISK ASSESSMENT
The building where floors 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are located, which are the subject of this self-protection manual, is located at Calle Urano nº 2, 28000 in Madrid.
This self-protection manual is a complement to the existing self-protection plan for the entire building, with a total of 14 floors, with which action must be taken in a coordinated manner.
The building has two accesses to the floors above ground, one from Saturno Street and the other from Urano Street.
Access via Saturno street has three double-leaf doors each 1.8 m wide.
Access via Urano street, has two central revolving doors and two normal ones on both sides of the previous ones, 0.9 m. wide, and that they must remain unblocked during the hours of operation of the building, since the rotating ones are not considered for evacuation purposes.
The building has an external emergency staircase, with the last folding section, the main staircase on the east side of the building communicating with the emergency staircase on the 3rd floor by external sliding, which increases the possibilities of evacuating the building.
The building has easy access for the heavy vehicles of the Fire Service since these can be located next to three of the four facades, in wide streets.
- EXTERNAL MEANS OF PROTECTION
3.1 Fire Hydrants
In the public roads around the building there are 2 manhole hydrants, for the water supply of the Public Fire Extinguishing Service.
The hydrants are easily accessible to fire fighting vehicles and are marked according to current regulations.
- BUILDING DESCRIPTION
The nine floors that are the object of this manual are located in a building with fourteen floors above ground level.
The structure is made up of reinforced concrete pillars and beams of different dimensions.
The foundation is made up of a slurry wall and isolated footings tied by bracing beams.
The slab is waffle on all floors.
The stairs have the stringer and plateaus of reinforced concrete being the formation of metallic steps. The wall cladding of the stairs is with plasterboard finished with textures (degree of reaction to fire M1).
The façade is composed of an anodized aluminum panel enclosure on vertical profiles also made of aluminum, double glazing of glass collected from vertical carpentry. Horizontal joints by the structural curtain wall system.
The main escape route on its floors above ground is the central corridor or hall located next to the elevators (door side) that communicates at both ends and through the independent hall with the protected stairs located on both sides (E / W) of the building and that lead to the ground floor level next to the exit doors.
4.1 Uses Contemplated in the Building
The operation of this building, as it is for administrative use, can be considered subject to the NBE – CPI – 96.
- COMPARTMENT IN FIRE SECTORS
The fire sectors into which the building is divided with their respective surfaces are:
Each plant is a fire sector
Core of elevators with fire doors on each floor.
Installations walkways with access to each floor through registers with RF doors.
6.2 RESTRICTIONS ON OCCUPANCY
No area of the building in which each of the evacuation routes needs to save, in an upward direction, a height greater than 4m is not intended for the habitual permanence of people.
6.3 Occupancy calculation
To calculate the occupancy of precincts and sectors, we have started from the values that appear in article 6 of the NBE – CPI – 96. The maximum global occupancy of the studied floors of this building according to these starting values is 702 people
7.1. Number And Arrangement Of Exits.
Throughout the building, the rooms with only one exit have occupations of less than 100 people, with evacuation routes to the exit of less than 25 m.
The enclosures or sectors that have several exits have a length of travel from any evacuation source to an exit of less than 50 m in the general areas of the building. There are no “cul de sac” with lengths greater than 25m.
7.2. Characteristics Of Doors, Corridors, Stairs And Previous Halls.
All evacuation elements comply with what is indicated in articles 8, 9 and 10 of the general part of the NBE – CPI – 96 and articles 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33.
The exit doors will be hinged with an easily operable vertical axis of rotation.
The doors for the evacuation of more than 100 people and the emergency exit doors will open in the direction of the evacuation.
The ramps counted as escape routes will have a slope of less than 12% if their length is less than 3 m, 10% if their length is less than 10 m and 8% if their length is greater, their pavement will be non-slip.
All stairs accounted for for evacuation will be protected and will have a maximum of two access doors on each level.
The stairs will have non-slip flooring and their plateaus have a depth greater than half the width and at least 1m of the stairs.
The protected stairs of the building will have natural ventilation per floor of at least 1 m2 or due to overpressure, in this case they have a 1 m2 practicable opening at the top, activated from the access floor for the exclusive use of firefighters.
The ascending and descending evacuation protected stairs are separated by RF compartmentalized element and doors on the exit level to the outside.
The dimensions of the steps of the evacuation stairs shall comply with the relationship 60 <70 where “h” is the tread and “c” is the riser; the dimension of the riser will be 13 cm. at least 18.5 cm. maximum and of the footprint equal to or greater than 28 cm.
This is how it continues with other segments such as:
DOCUMENT II: MEANS OF PROTECTION.
- INVENTORY OF TECHNICAL MEANS OF PROTECTION
1.1. Portable Fire Extinguishers
1.2. Equipped Fire Hydrant Network (BIE)
1.3. Fire Hydrants
1.4 Fire Detection.
- HUMAN RESOURCES.
DOCUMENT III: EMERGENCY PLAN.
- PURPOSE OF THE EMERGENCY PLAN
- RISK FACTOR’S.
- EMERGENCY PHASES.
3.1. Emergency Conato.
3.2. Partial Emergency.
- ACTIONS TO TAKE.