Science Examples

Examples of aldehydes

The aldehydes are chemical compounds containing the group carbonyl (-CHO) and which are obtained from the oxidation of primary alcohols and acids.

Carbonyl, for its part, is obtained from the separation of a hydrogen atom from one of the simplest aldehydes: formaldehyde .

The word “aldehyde” comes from the Latin alcohol dehydrogarium ( dehydrogenated alcohol).

How are they named?

There are three ways to name aldehydes. Used -carbaldehyde or formyl- to include the carbonyl carbon. It is written -carbaldehyde if the aldehyde is a functional group, and formyl- when it acts as a substituent.

  1. Replacing the ending -ano by -al in the corresponding alkane. For example: Hexanedi al or dimethylpentan al . When the chain has two aldehydes, the suffix -dial is substituted.
  2. To the group -CHO is added the suffix -carbaldehyde or -formyl. Example: cyclohexane carbaldehyde .
  3. If in the chain there is a priority group to the aldehyde, it is written oxo- or formyl- as a prefix.
  4. Common names such as methanal are also accepted .

Chemical properties

  • They are relatively easy to oxygenate.
  • They are very reactive .
  • They are reduced to alcohol (hydroxyls) by oxidation. This occurs when oxygen is broken from the carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom is released that binds to one of the bonds.
  • By having contact with reagents and with certain catalysts, they can be reduced to hydrocarbons.
  • Under certain conditions of temperature and others they tend to polymerize , that is, to produce polymers.
  • They undergo nucleophilic addition reactions.

Physical properties

    • They have a pungent and pungent odor . Although others like ethanal have a more pleasant smell (fruit).
    • They can be aliphatic or aromatic.
    • They are soluble, but this property depends on the size of your chain.
    • Among alkanes and aldehydes with the same molecular weight, the latter will have a higher boiling point.
    • They are less dense than water.

Uses of aldehydes

Members of this chemical family, like methanal, are widely used in industry . It is normally used to produce different types of resins and explosives.

With aldehydes , polyoxymethylene is also made , which is a type of plastic used in the automotive and appliance industries.

Being found in nature (flowers and fruits), it is common for certain aldehydes to be used in the production of perfumes and provide aromas similar to some natural ones such as vanilla, almonds, anise, cinnamon and others.

Examples of aldehydes

  1. Polyoxymethylene
  2. Methanal (Formaldehyde)
  3. Ethanal (Acetaldehyde)
  4. Propanal (Propionaldehyde)
  5. Butanal (Butyraldehyde)
  6. Pentanal (Pentaldehyde)
  7. Hexanal (Hexaldehyde)
  8. Heptanal (Heptaldehyde)
  9. Octanal (Octylaldehyde)
  10. Nonanal (Nonilaldehyde)
  11. Decanal (Decylaldehyde)
  12. Benzaldehyde
  13. Formaldehyde
  14. Tolualdehyde
  15. Salicylaldehyde
  16. Phenyl acetaldehyde
  17. Valeraldehyde
  18. Caproaldehyde
  19. Palmitaldehyde
  20. Stearaldehyde
  21. Isopropanal
  22. Isobutanal

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