We explain that what are the examples of biotechnology? with definition and types in detail. Biotechnology is the type of technology that uses biology to implement technological advances. It also refers to the branch of biology that scientifically studies the use of living cells in technology.
The biotechnology manipulate living cells to obtain and improve different kinds of products in various areas such as agriculture, the food industry and the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, it is applied and studied in branches of engineering and science, such as biomedical engineering, biochemical engineering, genetic engineering, bioinformatics engineering, chemical biology, cell biology, among others.
Types of biotechnology according to their use:
According to its use, the field or industry in which it is applied, biotechnology is classified into the following types:
- Green . Green biotechnology is one that is used in the agricultural industry. For example, in the genetic manipulation of seeds to improve crop conditions.
- Red . Red biotechnology is one that is used in the field of medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. It is used, for example, to produce vaccines and medicines, diagnose diseases, and analyze and obtain cures for diseases.
- White . White biotechnology is one that is used in industry; applies to the manufacture of products for human benefit in general.
- Gray . It is the type of biotechnology that focuses on caring for the environment. For example, with bioremediation.
Types of biotechnology according to their branch:
- Plant biotechnology . It focuses on biotechnology applied to agriculture; in the improvement of plant genes.
- Livestock biotechnology . Biotechnology applied to livestock; to nutrition, health, reproduction and nutrition of animals.
- Environmental biotechnology . Biotechnology applied to the environment; to the reduction of pollution, the treatment of waste and pollutants, and the development of processes that do not harm the environment.
- Food biotechnology . Biotechnology applied to food; for example, to the improvement in the nutrition, production and cultivation of food.
- Genetic biotechnology . It is one that focuses on genetic engineering; in the handling, manipulation and creation of DNA and genes.
- Microbial biotechnology . Biotechnology that is based on processes in which microorganisms intervene
- Reproductive biotechnology . Biotechnology oriented to animal reproduction.
25 examples of biotechnology
- Manufacture of transgenic foods. For its manufacture, genetic manipulation techniques applied to different organisms, such as vegetables, fruits, plants, animals, seeds, legumes, etc. are used, in order to achieve an improvement in terms of its production speed, resistance, crop durability and quality. Examples:
- Transgenic corn
- Transgenic soy
- Transgenic cassava
- Transgenic tomato
- Transgenic potato
- GMO Golden Rice
- GMO beef or chicken
- Gene transfer between organisms.
- Manufacture of detergents from enzymes, proteins that are produced by fungi or bacteria, which help cleaning; to remove stains or degrade grease and other difficult-to-remove elements.
- The elaboration of antibiotics from biological organisms. For example, the production of penicillin, which is obtained from fungi, or tetracillin.
- Obtaining recombinant proteins by genetic manipulation. Proteins are grown in organisms and help make different medicines.
- Manufacture of biodegradable plastics or biodegradable materials that degrade naturally, by the action of living organisms and thus reintegrate into nature.
- The production of biological fuels, which are not based on petroleum. Example, the production of alcohol as a biofuel.
- The production of biodegradable fibers.
- Genomics. It is the study of genomes, their functioning, origin, evolution, components. In biotechnology it is applied, for example, in the food, livestock, medical and environmental industries.
- Manipulation of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which the information contained in DNA is transformed into functional structures or products, such as proteins.
- Pharmacogenomics. It studies the variations of a genome in relation to the use of drugs.
- Protein sequencing and synthesis.
- The sequencing and synthesis of peptides.
- Preparation of macromolecular drugs from biotechnological processes; for example, the manufacture of insulin.
- Protein purification. It refers to the biotechnological processes that are applied to separate or isolate a protein for study or use.
- Proteomics. It is the study of proteins. It is a very important area of study and application of biotechnology.
- Cell signaling.
- The identification of cellular receptors.
- Cell and tissue culture.
- Cell fusion.
- The manufacture of vaccines.
- The manipulation of embryos. It corresponds to the area of reproductive biotechnology.
- Bioremediation. It is the use of microorganisms to reduce pollutants in the environment, such as bacteria or fungi. It seeks to improve the conditions of contaminated water or soil.
- Biofiltration. It is the creation of biological filters that help treat or purify contaminated air or gases.
- Phytoremediation. It is the treatment of contaminated soil, water or air from microorganisms or plants.