The general formula for hydroxides is:
X (OH) n; where X is any metallic element or cation. And OH- is a polyatomic anion with a global charge of -1.
When the proton is lost , the oxygen is left negatively charged by the hydrogen electron that has been removed.
The hydroxide anion is a basic compound. When a hydroxide dissolves in water, it decreases the acidity of the medium.
Nomenclature of these compounds
All chemical formulas have their proper nomenclature that reflects a lot of information. For hydroxides there are three nomenclatures:
- Traditional : starts with the word “hydroxide”, then the metallic element and valence.
- Out of stock : similar to the previous one. The valence of the element will be expressed in Roman numerals and in parentheses.
- Systematic : the numerical prefixes to the word “hydroxide” are placed first.
Examples of hydroxides
- Sodium hydroxide, NaOH
- Barium hydroxide, Ba (OH) 2
- Aluminum hydroxide, Al (OH) 3
- Zinc hydroxide, Zn (OH) 2
- Ferric hydroxide, Fe (OH) 3
- Ferrous hydroxide, Fe (OH) 2
- Cupric hydroxide, Cu (OH) 2
- Cuprous hydroxide, CuOH
- Calcium hydroxide, Ca (OH) 2
- Lithium hydroxide, LiOH
- Chromium (III) hydroxide, Cr (OH) 3
- Lead (IV) hydroxide, Pb (OH) 4
- Gold (III) hydroxide, Au (OH) 3
- Silver hydroxide, AgOH
- Mercuric hydroxide, Hg (OH) 2
- Beryllium hydroxide, Be (OH) 2
- Lead (II) hydroxide, Pb (OH) 2
- Platinum (IV) hydroxide, Pt (OH) 4
- Cobalt hydroxide, Co (OH) 2
- Manganese hydroxide, Mn (OH) 3
- Strontium hydroxide, Sr (OH) 2
- Magnesium hydroxide, Mg (OH) 2
- Tin (II) hydroxide, Sn (OH) 2
- Ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH
- Cadmium hydroxide, Cd (OH) 2
- Auric hydroxide Au (OH) 3
- Hypozirconium hydroxide Zr (OH) 3
- Lead hydroxide Pb (OH) 4
- Potassium hydroxide KOH
- Copper hydroxide CuOH
- Copper dihydroxide Cu (OH) 2
- Iron dihydroxide Fe (OH) 2
- Iron trihydroxide Fe (OH) 3
- Aluminum trihydroxide Al (OH) 3
- Lead tetrahydroxide Pb (OH) 4
- Manganese hexahydroxide Mn (OH) 6
- Hypochromic hydroxide Cr (OH) 2
- Chromous hydroxide Cr (OH) 3
- Chromic hydroxide Cr (OH) 6
- Hypovanced hydroxide V (OH) 2
- Vanate hydroxide V (OH) 3
- Vanadic hydroxide V (OH) 4
- Pervanadic hydroxide V (OH) 5
- Beryllium Dihydroxide Be (OH) 2
- Chromium dihydroxide Cr (OH) 2
- Chromium trihydroxide Cr (OH) 3
- Chromium hexahydroxide Cr (OH) 6
- Tin tetrahydroxide Sn (OH) 4
- Iron (II) hydroxide Fe (OH) 2
- Iron (III) hydroxide Fe (OH) 3
- Mercury (I) hydroxide HgOH
- Beryllium hydroxide Be (OH) 2
- NaOH sodium monohydroxide.
Examples of uses of hydroxides
- NaOH for the manufacture of soap, detergents, etc.
- Ca (OH) 2 for construction, bleaches, etc.
- Fe (OH) 3 in fertilizers.