Science Examples

Examples Of Inventions And Innovations

We will explain the examples of inventions and innovations. In all sciences and throughout history, it has been called the invention a whole new way of solving a problem . People dedicated to studying nature, industries and human activities have discovered that there are always situations with a problem that need a solution. Many times the solution was known, but not the way to achieve it. That is why a new facet in scientists emerged, that of inventors .

An inventor is someone who is engaged in scientific work (and that is not even needed today), who combines their knowledge with some imagination to find other ways to solve problems. Sometimes this work has a good result, which is presented as an object never seen before or an idea that can be applied . These can be useful to serve humanity and take a step forward in technological and scientific development.

Inventions are usually attributed to three factors that participated in the inventor’s work: hard and constant work, some moments of maximum inspiration and serendipity , which is the unexpected discovery that happens when looking for something different from what was found. According to Einstein, always doing the same thing will not get different results, so an invention is the product of an eventuality, which means that anyone can be an inventor as long as they have knowledge.

When the inventor brings to light something that has never been seen or applied, he presents it to the scientific community and the first thing he must do is register the patent . That is, declare that he created that invention, that it responds to his name and that he owns the copyright. That is why today we recognize Graham Bell as the creator of the first model of the telephone , created when one of the biggest problems was remote communication.

A registered patent earns royalties for the inventor. That is, to have the right to use your invention, you have to pay a monetary amount. If the inventor does not register the patents for his work, these are available to society to be used for his benefit. This is the case of various medicines, electrical machines and other devices that facilitate the performance of jobs, and of many ideas and procedures that can be applied, all of them without giving royalties to their creator.

Invention history

Since humanity was in the stage of Homo habilis , one of the first hominids in its evolutionary chain, it began to create weapons, utensils and ways to protect itself from extreme temperatures and predators. Those were the first inventions , because they solved the first problems were the need to feed and to shelter from the cold . Among these inventions are axes, bows, arrows, stone spears, wooden huts.

Another invention that arose in those days were cave paintings, which were graphic representations of life, expressions of what hominids lived or imagined during their activities. All of the above in the span of the Stone Age . Later came the Bronze Age , a period in which they began to experiment with metals, using fire to melt them and thus create new tools, which could be molded and adapted to needs.

Among the inventions that emerged during the Bronze Age, metallic and non-metallic, are vessels, spoons, daggers, knives, iron-tipped spears, plows, scythes, seeders, harvesting machines, among many others that facilitated human activities. more and more abundant. Thus, agriculture was perfected, for example, with better irrigation, planting and cultivation techniques.

In recent times, approximately since the 19th century , inventions have been patented as a legal resource that grants the right to produce with it and exploit it. However, there have been cases where the inventor decides not to patent his work and leave it for humanity to benefit from it. This is the case of the genius Nikola Tesla , creator of the radio and many other ideas and devices, who decided to leave them patent-free for humanity. But others usurped the credit.

Examples of inventions:

1. X-ray machine
2. Orthotics
3. Bow and arrow
4. Headphones
5. Car
6. Hoe
7. Boat
8. Battery
9. Horns
10. Pen
11. Bulb
12. Movie camera
13. Video camera
14. Camera
15. Cart
16. CD ROM
17. Brush
18. Toothbrush
19. Cutlery

20. Knife
21. Dentures
22. Diode
23. DVD
24. Abacus
25. Airplane
26. Hook
27. Harp
28. Harpoon
29. Automobile
30. Barrel
31. Cassette
32. Clasp o Zipper
33. Clip
34. Nail
clipper 35. Notebook
36. Toothpaste
37. Stethoscope
38. Stirrup
39. Fax
40. Book
41. Umbrella
42. Rake
43. Clock
44. The water clock
45. The hourglass
46. ​​The sundial
47. The digital clock
48. The mechanical clock
49. The spring
50. The drum
51. The telephone
52. The telegraph
53. The transistor
54. The ultrasound
55. The scalpel
56. Sword
57. Optical fiber
58. Eraser
59. GPS
60. Ax
61. Furnace of coal
62. Gas
oven 63. Wood
oven 64. Electric oven
65. Printing house
66. Toilet
67. Soap
68. The key
69. The machine gun
70. The vacuum cleaner
71. The scale
72. The coil
73. The incandescent light bulb
74 The flange
75. The compass
76. The seamer
77. The adhesive tape
78. Tape measure
79. Computer
80. Dynamite
81. Writing
82. Flute
83. Printing press
84. Syringe
85. Garter
86. Baking machine
87. Typewriter
88. Tortilla machine
89. The USB memory
90. The pocket knife
91. The Swiss
army knife 92. The pistol
93. The pruner
94. The razor
95. The wheel
96. The saddle
97. The trumpet
98. Lance
99. Pen
100. The antennae
101. Latrine
102. Locomotive
103. Glasses
104. Buttons
105. Matches or matches
106. Measurement systems
107. Step
marker 108. Table
109. Microchip
110. Microscope
111. Internal combustion engine
112. Internal combustion engine
113. Electric motor
114. Comb
115. Paper
116. Fountain pen
117. Pulley
118. Radio
119. Laser beam
120. Refrigerator
121. Artificial respiration
122. Clothes
123. Chair
124. Telescope
125. Television
126. Thermometer
127. Scissors
128. Ink
129. Record player
130. Tractor
131. Shoes

The term innovation is very versatile and is often inflated.

A clear definition of the term is important for a clear and common understanding in companies. To this end, there are several types of innovation that refer to the object and degree of innovation.

Examples of innovations that changed the world

Innovation is the introduction of something new that satisfies some need and is closely connected to science and technology, science being knowledge and technology its practice.

It is difficult to define a list of innovations, since the inventions discovered in antiquity, far from being antiquated, are the basis of many of the scientific and technological advances that we enjoy in the 21st century.

On this occasion, we will show 10 examples of innovations that changed the world.

1. Cutting tools

The vestiges of the first spear date from 400,000 BC. of C. This invention introduces the hunting like a habitual activity for the search of food and, consequently, forces the communities to organize themselves.

Furthermore, the spear as a sharp tool was the first technological innovation that would allow humans to begin cutting and manipulating stronger materials for their own benefit.

2. Pictographic art

17,000 years ago, some humans from Altamira, Spain, left their footprints in stones using pigments from the region, shaping what we call today cave painting, our first expression of art .

This basic way of expressing what we see has evolved over time to reach the complex digital artistic compositions that we see today.

The images became an essential form of expression in the human being. Thanks to our fascination with graphic representation, science and technology advanced towards the creation of photography by Joseph Niépce (1765-1833) together with Louis Daguerre (1787-1851) in 1839 and cinema by the Lumière brothers in 1859.

Along with the emergence of other innovations, today we use technologies for creating images in digital format, from image editing programs such as Photoshop , to virtual reality technology that recreates a world in three dimensions.

3. Housing

In 6000 a. From C, humans in the Middle East began to build houses, moving towards a more sedentary life. This innovation constitutes one of the bases for the path towards the notions of society, State and country.

4. Agriculture

In Mesopotamia the beginning of the plow is registered in 3,500 a. de C .. Plowing is a simple technique that allowed you to grow and care for your food efficiently and homogeneously. This innovation helped the human species plant and organize their food on a large scale.

5. Writing

The writing is one of the innovations that has grown and increased our knowledge because it records and transmits information muffling the oral barrier immediacy. The first records were found in Mesopotamia around 3,500 BC. by C.

6. Lenses

The first magnifying glass discovered is over 3,000 years old and was named the Nimrud lens. It was used by the Assyrians to observe the sky. Going through the technological advances created by the Egyptians, the Chinese and the Greeks, the first glasses were marketed around the year 1,280.

From this innovation, Zacharias Jansen (1580-1638) invented the first microscope in 1595 . This scientific and technological innovation would open the doors to the observation of the world of microorganisms, constituting the basis of advances in medicine.

In turn, in 1609, Galileo Galilei began to experiment with lenses, building the first telescopes that served to advance the knowledge of our solar system and the universe.

7. Steam machine

In 1768, James Watt (1736-1819), with the financial help of Matthew Boulton (1728-1809), created the first engine that prevented the constant loss of energy in steam engines. In this way, the concept of “horsepower” is created and the power of the electrical unit is baptized as watts (watt in Spanish).

This innovation revolutionized the world of transportation, introducing the creation of the locomotive by Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) in 1808, the automobile by Karl Benz (1844-1929) in 1886, the airplane by Clément Ader (1841-1925 ) in 1890, and the first space travel product of what is known as the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

8. Calculator

The calculator allows complex calculations to be made mechanically and without human error. The first calculator was created by Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) in 1642. This would start the technological advances in the field of computing and the subsequent creation of the World Wide Web or the web.

9. Batteries or batteries

Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) invented the first battery in 1800 when he discovered that the contact of two metals with a liquid conductor produced electrical energy. In this way, it was possible to produce energy.

Later, Gaston Planté (1834-1889) created the first automotive battery in 1860 that allowed the cell to be recharged once it was exhausted.

10. Telegraph

The telegraph was perfected for everyday use by Samuel Morse (1791-1872) in 1830. This technological and scientific innovation is considered the beginning of the media revolution .

In this sense, the telephone was born in 1875 with Graham Bell (1847-1922), and the radio, whose invention was attributed to Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937), the first successful test being around the year 1897.

As a consequence of the technological innovations of the moment, television was born, whose first mechanical model was created by John Logie Baird (1888-1946) in 1924, but which was only known as television in 1926. And we cannot fail to mention the medium of Today’s most common communication, the computer created by Konrad Zuse (1910-1995) in 1941.

Types of inventions

Inventions are classified into two large groups: tangible and non-tangible.

Tangible inventions

The tangible inventions are all appliances and devices that perform a task in the physical world, facilitating an activity or initiating it . This is the case of the steam engine , created by James Watt, or the wheel , the hydraulic pump , the pulley , the clay and pewter cooking vessels . All of them have arisen because there was a need or a problem, and they constituted the solution.

Intangible inventions

The intangible inventions are all ideas, programs, procedures or standards applied to foster the better way to work and achieve goals. This is the case of computer programs , operating systems , official standards that govern the operation of an industrial plant, and cooking recipes that indicate how to mix ingredients.

What is innovation?

Innovation is about responding to change in a creative way.

It is about generating new ideas, carrying out R&D activities , improving processes or modernizing products and services.

It’s also about a mindset in your business: one in which your staff, whether in the executive offices or in the workshop, always focus on continuous improvement and always think differently.

Regardless of how you define it, it is important to remember one thing about innovation: It should increase the value of your company in the market.

There are many types of innovation that your company can implement:

  • New ways to bring products to your customers
  • A new design to respond to customer demands.
  • Improved use of technology to update order processes and interaction with suppliers-customers
  • A more efficient plant design to reduce production time.
  • The design of products that comply with ecological standards.
  • An increase in your range of products or services to reach more specific customers
  • A new concept or a new way of doing business.

In a highly competitive business environment, companies can no longer simply compete with tangible assets, such as the latest equipment, or by offering the lowest cost to customers.

The ability to innovate also affects your market potential and provides you with a means to compete against emerging markets, a shrinking workforce, and accelerating technological change.

In fact, innovation has become a key strategy to attract and retain your customers in a fickle market.

If your company does not innovate, you run the risk of falling behind in productivity , losing customers and market share, or simply disappearing.

What is the purpose of the types of innovation?

From a management point of view, the types of innovation and therefore its classification have strategic and process-related importance.

The classification is also relevant, because different types of innovation have different requirements for the  innovation process .

A radical innovation requires a more comprehensive process with different decision-making structures than a small incremental innovation.

What are the types of innovation?

Innovation can happen anywhere. It can affect the performance of the organization, product or service. But also the structures of how the service is provided.

For this reason, the first classification is of the types of innovation according to their object.

  1. Types of innovation: Of products

Products refer to both material and intangible products. As services that satisfy the needs of the client and, therefore, are acquired by them.

With product innovations, a company makes money and tries to differentiate itself from the competition.

  1. Service innovation

Service innovations are like product innovations but are about selling them directly to the customer. For example, insurance or management consulting.

Even if these are not actively sold, as in the case of manufacturing companies, each company still provides services to its customers. As is the case in logistics, sales advice, etc.

This is also where innovation comes in when it comes to differentiation and customer enthusiasm.

3. Innovation in the business model 

The business model is the way a company operates and makes money.

Business model innovation encompasses ideas in strategies, marketing , supply chains, value creation , pricing, or cost structures.

4. Innovation in processes and technology

As the name implies, it is about technological innovations, such as the creation of products and services. In principle, they are also process innovations.

These include, for example, production processes or IT technologies for applications.

Product innovations, quality improvements, or cost savings often go hand in hand with process and technology innovations.

5. Organizational innovation 

This is one of the types of innovation that affect the organizational process and structure.

These can be process or management innovations. For example, new tools to measure customer satisfaction or optimize delivery processes to reduce costs.

6. Social innovation

Social innovations are innovations where the benefit falls on society and the purpose is not primarily self-earnings.

Examples include innovation in education, poverty reduction, equal opportunity, and health.

7. Types of innovation: Environmental

All innovations that contribute to improving the environment are environmental. This refers to ecological products, contributions to the protection of the environment or the avoidance of gas emissions.

An innovation can affect several topics at the same time. Logically, there is no clear limit.

For example, a product innovation can be a process and an environmental innovation at the same time. Or the innovation of a business model generally also brings with it an innovation of product and organization.

Degree of innovation: How new is the innovation?

How new an innovation is is subjective. Therefore, it can be called new:

  • For a company
  • A market or industry
  • All the world

Another frequently used innovation classification according to novelty is according to  scope of change :

8. radicals nnovaciones

They are new products, services or processes and involve important changes and innovations. Consequently, the impact is also greater

As a result, new markets can be created.

9. Types of innovation: Incremental

This is one of the types of innovation that includes the optimization and further development of existing products, services or processes.

The purpose is to improve customer benefit, cost reduction, repositioning, adaptation for entry into new markets or adaptation to new circumstances, such as new laws and standards.

Consequently, radical innovations are basic innovations and revolutions, whereas incremental innovations are improvements, adaptations, or follow-up innovations and therefore evolutions.

Whether an innovation is radical or incremental is very important to the customer. Therefore, clear and objective differentiation is often a challenge.

An example of this is the iPhone .

Apple and Steve Jobs were centralized in this regard. They believe that their products were not innovative, while others see it as the most innovative.

Individually, most of the technologies were not new. But the iPhone, as a product in the then-new smartphone market, was a game-changing innovation.

The app business model was also extremely innovative. Who would have thought that mobile phone software would become a separate market?

It is important for companies and their innovation management to define criteria for themselves. Some are return on investment , amount of investment costs, payback period, ability to have a patent , etc.

Types of innovation according to the novelty.

10. Sustained innovations

Preservation or continuous innovation refers to the improvement of existing elements, similar to incremental ones. This type of innovation focuses on current customers and their needs.

11. Disruptive innovations

Disruptive means replacement and describes innovations that shape a new market.

Disruptive innovations mainly originate in the low-end or attractive segment. However, as technology and product maturity increases, they are gradually attacking the mass market and thus replacing existing services.

Other types of innovation.

In addition to the topic of innovation and the degree of innovation, there are other classifications.

One of them is the innovation trigger: what triggered the innovation? A distinction is made between market momentum and technology impulse.

  • Attraction innovations originate in the marketplace and are initiated by a specific request from the customer.
  • Technological innovations are the result of new technologies for which suitable application possibilities are sought and implemented.

The literature on types of innovation also contains a division into  closed and  open innovation  , although this refers more to innovation management than to innovation itself.

  • Closed innovation involves only internal resources to generate ideas, develop and implement innovations.
  • Open innovation also integrates external partners such as customers, research institutes or suppliers in the innovation process.

Benefits of types of innovation

1. Solve problems easily

You need to find creative answers to solve certain problems in your business. Many times you will face problems that do not seem to go away.

You must go further to find an answer that you have never found. In this way, you can make your product, store inventory, and find a creative solution to improve your business.

2. Increase your productivity

If you ever feel like you’re stuck with work and struggling to get everything done, it’s time for you to be more productive. To do this, start to find a new process.

To work smarter , think creatively. Focus on what you need to organize and what you need to remove. In addition, it is important to pay attention to the programs and workflows that you can use to increase productivity.

For example, you can use a local project tracking system to assign, monitor, and prioritize tasks.

In companies, trying new ideas is always preferred. You will be surprised at the combination of them that work to make productivity plans that work for your company.

3. Market your business

You can use various creative and innovative ideas to make your business stand out from the crowd. This is where small business marketing comes in.

In order for people to remember your business, you need innovative ideas . You can create a new brand, develop a peculiar business or work with any non-profit organization.

Once you develop a unique character, you must market it. Just innovate a marketing plan that fits the personality of your business.

Stand out from all other companies and this will help you create a unique identity among customers.

4. Beat your competitors

When you think outside the box, it is very easy to beat your competition.

You just need to apply one of the many types of innovation and you can easily find better ways to design products and connect with customers.

Also, creativity will help you discover the right marketing techniques to grow your business.

5 innovation methods 

1. Brainstorming: The Walt Disney Method

We love brainstorming, and the Walt Disney Method is a simple technique that everyone can participate in. It is a role-playing game with three facets of the Disney personality.

According to Robert B. Dilts, “There were actually three different Walts: the dreamer, the realist, and the spoiler.”

Who are the three characters? The dreamer is a subjective and enthusiastic individual. Your task is to think of the ideal way to respond to the given challenge. The typical question for a dreamer is: “What can I do if everything is possible?”

The realist is the pragmatic and practical thinker who wants to realize the ideas of the dreamer. Your main question is: “How can you? I do?”

The spoiler judges and provokes ideas and provides positive feedback. He or she has to deal with the question “What can go wrong? ”

In the role-play exercise, you go through the different roles either alone or in a group. He always spends about 15 minutes in each role and engages in various interactions. This will help deepen each point.

2. Mapping empathy

When you find a new approach to grouping the research results, simulate a workshop situation in which the empathy map is used to group the results based on what the interviewees had said and done, focusing on thoughts and feelings, pains and earnings.

You will find that the empathy map is a great tool, as it is applicable to all companies and provides valuable information on what customers and partners really want. Knowledge is crucial to the success of your business.

It all starts with a big white sign and a sketch of a character’s head. Divide the poster into five sections that describe what the character sees, hears, thinks, and feels, as well as the challenges the character faces.

Ask the game players to change perspectives. Fill in the map with real research results about the person’s experiences. This helps team members to identify with the person and project themselves into it.

During the game, all players should write their ideas about the experiences of the target person on post-it and then paste them in the respective section of the empathy map.

Once it’s complete, analyze the results as a team and think of ways to apply them to your service or product.

3. Belbin Characters

The Dr. Meredith Belbin found that when groups work together, there is always a set of nine characters. And each of them is essential for the group to be successful from start to finish.

However, this does not mean that you need nine different people on your team, because even one person may not necessarily behave the same way all the time.

Being able to identify the different characters in a project or workplace and being able to adapt your own behavior to the strengths and weaknesses of your team can be a huge advantage.

The nine roles can be divided into three orientations: act-oriented, subject-oriented, and communication-oriented. To perform the exercise, we usually use the game “build a bridge”.

After dividing into groups of 4-6, you provide each group with a large stack of paper, a full pint bottle, and two tables or chairs as the base for the bridge.

The distance between the chairs or tables can vary from 50 centimeters to 1 meter. After 30 minutes of construction with paper, the bottle is placed on the bridge and supported for 20 seconds.

It is up to you if you want to hand out cards with the characteristics of each role at the beginning of the game so that people behave according to their role, or if it is better to introduce the characters after the exercise.

In both cases, you end with a reflection on people’s behaviors as they try to solve a problem together.

4. Remember the future

Remember the Future is an easy game that helps us better understand our clients’ definition of success and deepen their understanding of how to achieve their goals.

It focuses on the question “What should your product be?”, Which is often answered with: “Our product should be better”.

In reality, there is a possible and plausible unlimited future to think about and answer the question together with your clients. You need a few pieces of paper and let them imagine that they have been using your product continuously until sometime in the future.

Now ask them to write as much as possible about what your product will have done so that they are happy until then.

5. A day in the life

We want to understand others better. As a combination of investigation and storytelling, the “Day in the Life” method is invaluable for obtaining detailed information from the user.

Designers are used to observing people during a typical work day, recording their activities, and taking notes on how they experiment with their surroundings.

However, deep field research is not always possible, so we use the “Day in the Life” method as an alternative. Let clients count their typical work days while others take notes.

Paying close attention to how people spend their time allows you to gather a realistic picture of their work environments.

Then, all the information that was gathered about the daily routine is grouped and classified into a timeline similar to a customer journey.

Mapping a day in the life illustrates how time is allocated to different activities and helps identify obvious or potential problems at each step.

Lastly, brainstorm ideas to improve this daily sequence.

“A day in the life” can be repeated over several days to get a balanced perspective. Clients can also submit a typical week or any relevant time period.

Why the methods work

We must be open to more than methods and tools to apply the different types of innovation: we must try storytelling techniques, warm-ups, sketches and psychological theories for group dynamics, etc.

Anything that can support you during work should be welcome.

 What types of innovation are there?

Innovation is about creating more effective processes, products, and ideas. For a business, it could mean implementing new ideas, improving services, or creating dynamic products.

It can act as a catalyst that can grow your business and help you adapt in the market.

By innovation, we mean changing your business model and making changes to the existing environment to offer better products or services. Successful innovation should be part of your business strategy, where you can create a culture of innovation and a path for creative thinking.

You can also increase the likelihood that your business will be successful and create more efficient processes that can result in better productivity and performance.

For that, business owners need innovation and creativity to find new things. Try to embrace innovation types and create new ideas that help you grow beyond your competition.

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