Biology

What is the Structure of cytoplasm in a cell and Its Function

The living contents of the eukaryotic cells are divided into the nucleus and cytoplasm. It is a colorless, transparent, and semifluid substance. it is found around the nucleus. It contains water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other substances. Cytoplasm maintains the life of a cell. All chemical process takes place in the cytoplasm. These living contents collectively form protoplasm.

The cytoplasm has two parts:

a. Organelles and Insoluble Products

It contains different cell organelles like mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, etc. It also contains insoluble waste and storage products.

b. Cytosol

The soluble part of the cytoplasm is called cytosol. It forms the ground substances. Chemically, it has about 90% water. It contains all the fundamental molecules of the cells. These molecules are present in two forms:

  1. True Solution: the small molecules and ions from a true solution.
  2. Colloidal Solution: some large molecules from a colloidal solution. The colloidal solution is present in two forms.
  3. Sol: It is the part of the cytoplasm present in the peripheral region. It is more transparent and less viscous and is also known as “Sol”.

OR

The non-viscous colloidal solution is called sol. It is present in liquid form. For example, Milk.

  1. Gel: It is the part of the cytoplasm present in the central region. It is less transparent and more viscous and is also known as “Gel”.

OR

The viscous colloidal solution is called gel. It is present in the form of semi-solid. For example, Butter.

Functions of Cytoplasm

It performs the following functions:

  1. It acts as a storage house. Most of the important compounds like starch are stored in it.
  2. Some metabolic processes like glycolysis (breaking or glucose) take place in the cytoplasm.
  3. The it contains several cell organelles like Mitochondria, Golgi-bodies, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Lysosomes, etc. These cell organelles perform many important functions of the cells.
  4. Cytoplasm shows streaming movements. This is an active mass movement of the cytoplasm. Many free-floating organelles like mitochondria move in it due to these streaming movements.

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