Importance of Bacteria in different Field with Physical & Chemical Control

Importance of Bacteria

There has both positive and negative importance of bacteria. They play a very important role in the life of human beings. Their importance is given below:

Ecological Importancebacteria

Bacteria are ecologically very important. They show many adaptations. So they are present everywhere. They decompose organic matter and play an important role in the completion of cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and carbon.

Economic Importance

Bacteria show the following beneficial and harmful effects:

  1. Bacteria are used in a number of industries like food, drugs (production of antibiotics and vaccines), and biotechnology.
  2. They are responsible for the spoilage of food and vegetables.
  3. Many plant pathogens adversely affect the agriculture industry.
  4. Bacteria are common pathogens in humans. There are 200 species of bacteria that cause disease in man.
  5. Many bacteria normally live in the bodies of a man and other animals and perform important functions.

Medical Importancebacteria

Bacteria are very common pathogens in humans. Approximately, 200 species are known to cause diseases in humans. Many bacteria normally inhabit the bodies of a man and other animals.

(Brief note on Importance of Bacteria)


1. Decaying of dead bodies:

Bacteria decompose the dead remains of plants, animals, and human beings into simpler compounds. In this way, they help to clean the world.

2. Bacteria in Industries:bacteria

  1. Bacteria are used in the dairy industry they change the milk into curd.
  2. They are used in the formation of butter and cheese from milk.
  3. From certain bacteria, antibiotics are obtained, for example, Terramycin, Streptomycin, Neomycin, etc.
  4. Bacteria are used in the preparation of alcohol and vinegar.
  5. Bacteria are also used in the leather industry.

3. Digestion:

Certain bacteria are present in the intestine of man arid and help in the digestion of cellulose.

4. fertility of soil:

Bacteria increase the fertility of the soil by adding organic substances due to the decompositions of dead bodies.

5. Nitrogen Fixation:

Bacteria also take part in nitrogen fixation i.e. they convert Nitrogen into its compounds like nitrites and nitrates. These compounds are used by plants.


1. Spoilage of Food:

Bacteria spoil our foodstuff in large amounts through the chemical process. It is a great loss.

2. Diseases in Man:

Bacteria are responsible to cause various diseases in man and other animals, such as Tuberculosis (T.B.), Pneumonia, Cholera, Typhoid, Tetanus, Syphilis, Diphtheria, etc.

3. Diseases in Plants:

Bacteria also cause disease in various plants, such as Citrus Canker, Fire blight of apple, Ring disease of potato, wilt of Solanaceae plants, etc.

Control of Bacteria

It is necessary to control bacteria at the home, in industries, and in medical fields. The disease can be prevented by controlling the bacteria. The control of bacteria can prevent the spoilage of foods and other industrial products. Microorganisms can be controlled by the following methods:Importance of Bacteria

Physical Methods

The process in which we use physical methods to control bacteria is known as sterilization. Steam, dry heat, gas, filtration, and radiations are used in process of sterilization. Sterilization destroys all microorganisms. The following methods are used for sterilizations:

  1. High temperature is used in microbiological labs the controlling microbes. Both dry and moist heat is effective. Moist heat causes the coagulation of proteins that kill the microbes. Dry heat causes the oxidation of chemical compounds of the microbes and kills them.
  2. Certain electrochemical radiations below 300 nm are effective for killing bacteria. Gamma rays are used for the sterilization process.
  3. Membranous filters can sterilize heat-sensitive compounds like antibiotics, serum, hormones, etc.

Chemical Methods

Antiseptics, disinfectants, and chemotherapeutic agents can be used for microbial control.

  1. Antiseptics: Chemical substances used on living tissues (outside the body) that inhibit the growth of microorganisms are called antiseptics. Antiseptics are mostly used on wounds.
  2. Disinfectant: The chemical agents used on non-living material (surgical instruments etc.) that inhabit the growth of vegetative cells of microorganisms are called disinfectants. The important chemical agents used for disinfection are oxidizing and reducing agents. For example halogens (chlorine), phenols, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, alcohol, formaldehyde, etc.
  3. Chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotics: They destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms in living tissues. They work with the natural defense and stop the growth of bacteria and other microbes. For examples Sulfonamides, tetracycline, penicillin, etc.

(Brief note on Control of Bacteria)

The different methods to control the infections of micro-organisms are as follows:

  1. Infected persons should be properly treated with effective medicines.
  2. Persons in a population should be treated by immunization and vaccination.
  3. In epidemic conditions, the infected persons should be kept in quarantine to avoid the spread of infection to healthy persons.
  4. At different possible stages, the life cycle of the pathogen should be disrupted, so it cannot cause the infection.
  5. The host bodies of the pathogen should be identified and treated well to control the disease.
  6. In different ways, knowledge and awareness about diseases and infections of pathogens should be provided to the public.
  7. Many methods should be used to kill or inhibit the infection of pathogens, such as:
  8. High-temperature treatment.
  9. By ultraviolet rays.
  10. With the help of antiseptics.
  11. By the use of antibiotics.
  12. By chemotherapy (chemical treatment).

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