The industrial revolution began in England during the second half of the 18th century , it is considered one of the most momentous events in world history. The invention of the steam engine or mechanical spinning machine, among many other innovations that were made at the time, have diversified our levels of well-being to a category that contemporaries could not have imagined.
Taking into account the most accurate explanation so far, England had a particular combination of factors that prompted the spark to jump. In this way, the roulette of geography was in its favor, as it had large reserves of coal that were easily accessible. Added to this, for various reasons, the value of money, and therefore the ability to invest in technology, was also quite accessible.
But perhaps more important was the price of labor, which was relatively quite eminent. The takeover of English colonial trade had helped make London an astonishingly dynamic economic center, forcing wages up.
In summary, the high value of labor, added to the price of energy and capital , influenced the sponsorship of new technologies that saved on deals and thus made innovation and investment profitable. In the middle of the 19th century, the industrial revolution was already part of the societies of Europe, Japan and the United States.
Characteristics of the industrial revolution
- Industrial production in large quantities, mainly in food.
- the replacement of iron with steel, a more rigid and resistant material.
- The improvement of new industries such as iron and steel (metals) or mining and textiles.
- The power of the bourgeoisie over politics and the economy, replacing the absolute power of the nobility and starting the social class of the proletariat.
- The advancement of trade on a global scale (thanks to large production capacity and innovations in maritime and land transport).
Influential factors in the industrial revolution
- The demographic revolution : thanks to changes in food and quality of life (which moved from the countryside to the city). The revolution introduced changes that influenced population growth, such as the decrease in mortality (due to the growth in food production), the greater evolution of medicine (thanks to the invention of the vaccine) together with the constant increase in the birth rate.
- The agricultural revolution : until the 18th century agricultural work was closely related to the practices of the Middle Ages. The work was purely manual and animal traction, little private property (the fields used to be open or owned by the municipality) and little manufacturing due to the “fallow” system.
- The industrial revolution introduced changes : from this, machinery was used to work the land, the fields became private property and the old farming system was replaced by the “Norflk rotation system”.
- The bourgeois revolutions : from the middle of the 18th century the bourgeoisie began to demand the might of the economic and political power that until then was headed by a king and the nobility, which started the French revolution and in turn of the thirteen colonies (North American ), among many others.
- The bourgeoisie promoted the creation of significant inventions . In addition to this, a new social class germinated; the proletariat, which was the working class that did not own property or means of production.