Natural Sciences


Definition of ions

Ions is a term used to describe the process of the atom or molecule when it loses its characteristic electrical neutrality . In this sense, the process that the atom goes through that is related to the gain or loss of the corresponding supply of electrons that is a characteristic part of the atomic structure of said compound, is known as ionization.

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Ions can be made up of two or a multiplicity of atoms that can be of different nature or come from a single atom. In this sense, when an ion is positively charged, it is known as a cation, while otherwise, when it has a negative charge, it is called an anion.

Types of ions

  • Cation

In anions, each electron that makes up the atom is fully retained by the positive charge that the nucleus presents, despite being originally neutral. It should be noted that there is a difference with the rest and that is that in anions, the main electron is not linked or related to the nucleus by the Coulomb force, but is found in this way due to the polarization of the atom that is find neutral.

Cation Example

  1. Aluminum (Al3 +)
  2. Cesium (Cs +)
  3. Chromium III or chromic ion (Cr3 +)
  4. Chromium VI or perchromic ion (Cr6 +)
  5. Hydrogen or proton (H +)
  6. Helium or alpha particle (He2 +)
  7. Lithium (Li +)
  8. Iron II or ferrous ion (Fe2 +)
  9. Iron III or ferric ion (Fe3 +)
  10. Nickel III or nickel ion (Ni3 +)
  11. Tin II or stannous ion (Sn2 +)
  12. Tin III or stanic ion (Sn3 +)
  • Anion

It is known as anion (or anions) to ions that have a negative electrical charge, that is, they have gained electrons in a chemical reaction that gave rise to them. They can be made up of one or more atoms, but even in the latter case the overall charge of the molecule (its oxidation state ) is always negative.

Each particle has its own ability to gain or lose electrons, when electrons are gained, that is, when a particle obtains a negative charge it is called an anion, and when they lose electrons and obtain a positive charge they are called cations.

Types of anions

    • Acids:  They are those that come from a polyprotic acid that are characterized by having multiple ionizable hydrogens, from which protons have been extracted. For example: Diacid phosphate (H2PO4-).
    • Monoatomic:  They are those that are made up of a single atom that has gained electrons. For example, we show the case of Chloride (Cl-).
    • Polyatomic: They are those that come from a molecule that has gained electrons in a chemical reaction, or from an acid that has lost protons, as is the case with Sulfite (SO32-).

Anion Example

  1. Azide (N3-)
  2. Bromide (Br-)
  3. Carbide (C4-)
  4. Chloride (Cl-)
  5. Fluoride (F-)
  6. Phosphide (P3-)
  7. Nitride (N3-)
  8. Sulfide (S2-)

The notation for ions is given by placing a superscript on the right side of the symbol of the molecule or atom marking the number of electrons that are missing or excess, with a positive or negative sign that indicates the charge of the particle.

Ion Example

  1. Chlorides
  2. Sulfates
  3. Nitrates
  4. Calcium cation
  5. Manganese cation
  6. Hypochlorite
  7. Ammonium
  8. Ferric cation
  9. Ferrous cation
  10. Magnesium cation
  11. Silicates
  12. Borates
  13. Permanganate
  14. Sulfide
  15. Orthophosphate
  16. Metaphosphate
  17. Carbonates
  18. Citrate
  19. Malate
  20. Acetate

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