Chemistry

Law of Equipartition of Energy and Energies of Freedom

Elaborate the Law of Equipartition of Energies

In physical chemistry, for a monoatomic gas, the translational energy associated with one mole of the molecule at any temperature is 3/2RT.

According to the law of equipartition of energy, 1/2RT is expended along the x-axis, 1/2RT along the y-axis and 1/2 RT along the z-axis.

law of equipartition energy equation

we have already considered that if the component velocities are u, v, and w, then the kinetic energies along x, y, and z-axis are,

kinetic energies along x,y and z-axis

U, V-, and  Ware the average velocities along the x, y, and z-axis.

if we want to apply this law to the equipartition of energy for a single molecule, then equations (1) and (2) can be written as (3) and (4) respectively.

equipartition of energy for a single molecule

where ‘K’ is the Boltzmann constant.

or,       modified form of energy of equipartition of a single molecule

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