Mitochondria are very important organelles. These are present only in Eukaryotic cells. They are involved in the manufacturing and supply of energy to the cell. So it may be called the powerhouse of the cell. The size and number of mitochondria are different in different cells.
Structure of Mitochondria
It may be vesicle, rod, or filament shaped. These are bound by two membranes. The outer membrane is smooth. The inner membrane forms many infoldings, called cristae. The inner chamber is called the mitochondrial matrix. The inner surface of cristae contains small knob-like structure, called F1 particles. These F2 particles are suspended inside the matrix.
Chemical Composition of Mitochondria
Formation of new Mitochondria
These are self-replicating organelles. It means new mitochondria are formed by the division of the old mitochondria.
Many important metabolic processes take place in mitochondria. These are the Krebs cycle, aerobic respiration, fatty acid metabolism, etc. Energy is released from organic food during these metabolic processes. This energy is transferred to the energy-rich compound ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP provides energy to cells on-demand and ATP is broken to ADP. This ADP absorbs energy from mitochondria and again becomes ATP.