Some organisms within this kingdom are aerobic and others anaerobic , that is, many need oxygen to complete their metabolic process, but others do not.
The term monera was proposed by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Many decades later, in 1920, Edóard Pierre Chatton discovered that these parasites and bacteria did not have a nucleus and they began to differentiate prokaryotes from eukaryotes. As early as 1939, the word “monera” began to be used officially, the first to do so in his studies was Fred Alexander Barkley.
Characteristics of the Monera kingdom
Most of the species within the group of moneras are bacteria and archaea, which have flagella to be able to move.
They measure between 0.2 and 3 microns in diameter, making them one of the smallest organisms discovered so far.
Their feeding is developed through osmotrophy or osmosis . In turn, this absorption of nutrients can be heterotrophic or autotrophic , that is, they feed on organic matter dissolved in their environment, coming from other organisms; or they produce their own food, respectively.
The DNA of these species is in the shape of a circular strand and is free within the cytoplasm. Its reproduction is asexual , through binary fission.
Types of species within the kingdom
According to its prokaryotic classification:
- Mendosicutes, Archeas or Archaebacteria. They live in harsh environments, and their nutrition is very similar to that of eukaryotes.
- Mollicutes, Tenericutes or mycoplasmas. They are very simple organisms. They do not have a cell wall and are mainly of the parasite type.
- Gracilicutes or gram negative bacteria. They have very thin murein skin and a double plasma membrane. On Gram stain they turn pink instead of blue.
- Firmicutes or gram positive bacteria. They are shaped like a bacillus or coconut. Unlike the previous ones, its dye turns purple or blue.
According to their diet:
- Saprophytes : are those that feed on residues that are produced by other organisms.
- Parasites : they are those that feed on living organisms.
- Symbiotic : they are species that feed thanks to the relationship they establish with other organisms.
Examples of species from the kingdom monera
- Escherichia coli. It is the cause of gastrointestinal infections.
- Lactobacillus casei. It is found in the gut and mouth of people. Generates lactic acid.
- Clostridium tetani. Produces spores and anaerobic. They are housed in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. It generates tetanus and other infections in humans.
- Clostridium septicum. It produces abscesses, grangrene, neutropenic enterocolitis, and sepsis in humans.
- Chlamydia (chlamydia). Responsible for sexually transmitted diseases.
- Clostridium botulinum. Produces a toxin that causes botulism.
- Sorangium cellulosum. It has the largest genome ever detected in a bacterium.
- Serpulina (bachyspira). They are bacteria that parasitize humans.
- Vibrio vulnificus. Bacillus that tolerates salt, so it can survive and grow in seawater. It causes infections in people.
- Bifidobacteria. They are the bacteria that lodge in the colon. Helps with digestion and reduces the consequences of allergies. It also prevents the growth of some tumors.