The movements made by the muscles can be voluntary or involuntary. The latter refers to spasms or reflexes, for example.
In any case, this system is the one that allows the bones to move, since, through the tendons, they are attached to our bone structure. Together with the nervous system, the muscles make the bones perform minimal and more complex movements.
There are three groups of muscles:
- The skeletal. They reach up to 30cm, and, as the name implies, it has striations that are visible through a microscope. These tissues change shape when stretched
- The smooth . They are the muscles that are characterized by involuntary contractions: the muscles of the uterus, iris, trachea, ureter, stomach, skin, blood vessels and other organs.
- The cardiac. It is found in the heart and its function is to pump blood.
- The shape of the muscles also derives in a classification:
- Fusiforms . They are thick in the middle and thin at the ends.
- Flat and wide. An example of this form is the abdominals.
- Fans . The pectorals or temples of the jaw have this fan shape.
- Circulars . They are those with the shape of a ring, for example, the pylorus or the anus.
- Orbicular . They are similar to spindle-shaped but have a hole in the center. For example, the lips and eyes.
Functions of the muscular system
– The following are the main actions that muscle tissue performs in our body for our benefit.
– Execute the displacement of our body through the movement of the lower extremities .
– They intervene in the functioning of some organs autonomously, such as the heart.
– It allows us to make facial expressions to express our moods.
– They serve as “signallers” of some conditions or diseases, due to the involuntary contractions that occur at certain times.
– Provides stability or balance of our body.
– Generates the necessary heat for the body.
– Protects some organs such as those belonging to the digestive system.
– Change postures and shape the body.
These are some of the most common diseases suffered in muscle tissue:
- Tear . Tissue rupture.
- Cramp . Involuntary contraction in the superficial muscles. It can cause bearable pain.
- Sprain . It is an injury caused by damage to the muscle fibers.
- Muscular dystrophy. It refers to the degeneration of skeletal muscles.
- Atrophy. It is the loss or reduction of muscle tissue.
Examples of muscles
- Little finger abductor
- Long abductor pollicis
- Thumb adductor
- Greater adductor
- Median adductor
- Minor adductor
- Angular shoulder blade
- First finger approximator
- External sphincter of the anus
- Splenium of the head
- Splenium of the neck
- Common extensor of the fingers
- Extensor pollicis brevis
- Extensor digitorum longus
- Long extensor of the first toe
- Extensor pollicis longus
- Proprietary extensor of the index finger
- Proprietary extensor of the little finger
- Brachial biceps
- Crural biceps
- Brachialis anterior
- Minor complex
- Vulvar constrictor
- Short lateral peroneum
- Long lateral peroneum
- Tensor fascia lata
- Anterior tibial