A peroxisome is known as an element found in all prokaryotic cells , in all those with a defined nucleus. Its function focuses on carrying out metabolic activities such as the degradation of lipids and the transformation of certain substances into oxygen. In addition, this cellular organelle is composed of enzymatic proteins, they are those that fulfill the process of this element in a particular way.
However, this also takes care of the respective oxidation of amino acids and fatty acids by means of enzymes such as peroxidase and catalase. Its presence is noticeable in organs such as the liver, kidneys and brain. However, peroxisomes, due to their function, are also found in all tissues that are part of the organism and the body. Maintains a size of 0.1-1 μm diameters, it can vary according to the conditions of its environment.
For its part, the name of peroxisome was assigned and awarded due to the discovery of its first studies. Through this, it was established that the micro body could produce hydrogen peroxide. Due to peroxidase enzymes, cytologist Christian De Duve called this element peroxisomes . In this sense, it is necessary to mention that there are different types of peroxisomes, they maintain their same functions although they develop differently depending on their environment.
- It is characterized by being able to change size as necessary.
- You can multiply or generate more peroxisomes by dividing them.
- Vary which enzyme it works with as needed and as it performs its functions.
- It is made up of a double layer membrane of lipids or better known as fat.
- Its structure is based on microtubules that belong to the cytoskeleton of the cell. It also has a protein called the ribosome to synthesize substances.
- It uses up to fifty different types of enzymes to carry out its synthesizing procedure.
- Animal Peroxisome: Its function focuses on the decomposition and absorption of lipids in the body. In addition, it ensures that cells remain stable during oxidation processes, as it protects them. In the case of animals , this element is present in the mitochondria, specifically, in their smooth reticulum.
- Plant Peroxisome: On this occasion, the peroxisome is responsible for contributing to the photorespiration used by plants. This process is known as carbon dioxide oxidation or ß-oxidation.
- Peroxisome and lysosome: These two elements work hand in hand to adequately fulfill the metabolic processes of the body. While the peroxisome focuses on producing hydrogen peroxide, necessary to carry out its function, the lysome recycles cellular components. That is, the waste they generate is decomposed with the help of lysome.
- Glioxisome: This is how the peroxisomes that occur in seeds are named. Its main function is to store all substances necessary for its growth and development, it is a kind of reserve. The process used by the glyoxysome focuses on transforming lipids into sugars during germination, only this guarantees the proper evolution of the seed.
Example of peroxisomes
- Peroxisome protector of cells in the oxidation process.
- Hydrogen peroxide producing peroxisome.
- The peroxisome, transforming lipids into sugars, provides energy.
- Peroxisome synthesizer and transformer of substances into oxygen.
- Peroxisome of oxidation in carbon dioxide.
- The peroxisome catalyst for bile acids, amino acids and polyamines.
- Plasminogen biosynthesizing peroxisome.