Natural Sciences


In geology, relief is any irregularity that exists on the earth’s surface. To know if a space is a relief or not, a flat territory should be taken as a reference. Sea level is usually used as a guide.

The Earth has infinities of types of surface that vary in altitude and other factors that describe it geographically. But they are the so-called great reliefs are those portions of land that are considerable, not any unevenness that exists between the sea and the ground.

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Types of relief

  • Cliff . It is a rock formation that is normally surrounded by water.
  • Cannon . It is the product of the erosion produced by the passage of water from a river, which over time was forming a cliff.
  • Hills . They are small mountains that can be easily visited by people.
  • Mountain range . They are a series of mountains located close to each other with a certain uniformity.
  • Depression . They are those regions that stay below the soils that are close, although they do not necessarily have to be very low. On the other hand, there are also the absolute depressions that are well below sea level.
  • Plains. They are plains, so they have almost no height (less than 200m). Its climate is warm and it is the habitat of many species of animals and plants.
  • Plateaus . They are elevations of rocks or land that were formed thanks to the erosion of water or wind on the ground. Its altitude is varied and its surface is almost completely flat.
  • Mountains . They are the most common formation, and they are elevations that originate from the collision of tectonic plates. The smaller they are, the longer they have been formed.
  • Peninsula . It is a portion very similar to an island, since it is surrounded by water, but it differs from these because it is unique to the territory that surrounds it by a strip of land.
  • Valley . If it is located at the “feet” of a mountain. It is a flat area where the water that circulates through the mountain rests, due to the erosion generated.

In art

The term “relief” is also widely used in the art world, since there are many artists who have created pieces, such as paintings or walls, whose compositional elements are palpable, that is, they come out of the surface where they were created.

There are embossed punctures that if you touch them with your fingers you will feel the texture that protrudes from the finished canvas or painting.

Examples of relief

In geology:

    • Tibet plateau
    • Andean highlands
    • Central Plateau of Spain
    • Great Plains, in the United States
    • Pampas plain, in Argentina
    • Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain
    • Grenada depression
    • Caspic Depression
    • Great Bass of San Julián
    • Dan Brist, in Ireland
    • The Rock Old Man, in Scotland
    • Risin og Kellingin rocks in Faeroe Islands
    • The Everest
    • Mount lhotse
    • The Makalu
    • Andes mountains
    • Himalayan mountain range
    • Cantabrian Mountains
    • Florida peninsulas
    • Peninsula of Valdés
    • Sinai peninsula
    • Florida peninsulas
    • Peninsula of Valdés
    • Sinai peninsula
    • Florida peninsulas
    • Peninsula of Valdés
    • Sinai peninsula
    • Florida peninsulas
    • Peninsula of Valdés
    • Sinai peninsula

In art:

  • The Pergamon Altar, exhibited in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
  • The lions and animals that are in “the Gate of Ishtar”, in Babylon.
  • Reliefs on pylons and walls of ancient Egyptian temples.
  • The monuments of Angkor Wat, Cambodia.
  • The Lion of Asoka, in India.
  • The Mayan Glyphs.
  • The Confederation Monument on Stone Mountain, Georgia, USA.
  • The Borobudur temple in Indonesia.
  • The Elgin Marbles, exhibited at the British Museum in London.

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