The taiga refers to a boreal forest , that is, it is considered a biome made up entirely of coniferous forests and it is the largest forest mass that exists on the planet. This forest mass is found in the coldest areas of the planet, specifically located in the northern hemisphere, very close to the Arctic polar circus to the north of Russia, Europe, Canada and Alaska.
The name Taiga comes from the Russian language and means “land of small sticks” . This type of biome is considered to be at an intermediate level, located between the tundra and the steppe. In this sense, it is important to note that in the southern hemisphere of the planet, this biome does not exist, however, there is a variant of it and it is called Magellanic subpolar forest.
This ecosystem is one of the most important on the planet since they are in charge of fixing carbon on the planet as well as oxygenation and this is because thanks to the large extensions of this type of biomes, large amounts of CO2.
The location of this type of biome is in the northern or coldest areas of the planet , near the Arctic Circle. It is found in specific regions north of Russia, Alaska, Canada, or Europe. The boundaries meet the Tundra and the steppe.
Temperatures in these types of biomes are cold and generally extreme, reaching minus 54 degrees Celsius. Mostly the standard temperature of the area is between 0 and 5 degrees Celsius.
The rainfall is scarce with approximately 400 to 600 mm per year, in some areas may vary and reach 1000 mm, with a high level of humidity. During the winter periods the snowfalls are continuous and depending on the altitude and the cold of the area, they can last all year.
- They are originally from the last ice age.
- It is one of the lungs of the planet.
- They are near the arctic polar helmet.
- It does not have a multiple diversity, neither plant nor animal.
- It is a frozen desert.
- It is a producer of wood for industrial use.
- The temperatures are zero degrees Celsius or below zero.
The conifers are the most prevalent in this type of biome, forming large tracts of forest. Its photosynthesis process is much faster and the sunlight barely appears continuously.
The approximate height of its vegetation is approximately 40 meters in the shape of a pyramidal crown and product of the denseness of its branches, sunlight generates little impact on the undergrowth so life around it is scarce. That is why it is considered a biome with little or little plant biodiversity .
The fauna of this type of biome is scarce or not very varied due to the climatic conditions it offers. The species that inhabit this type of space generally adapt to the climate in order to survive with abundant fur. Among them we can mention:
- Guinea pigs
- Lynxes, among others.
Examples of taiga
- Slave-Muskwa Lake forests in Canada.
- Canadian Uruguayan boreal forests, in Canada.
- Taiga of the Ural Mountains, Russia.
- Taiga of eastern Siberia, in Russia.
- Taiga and grasslands of Kamchatka, Russia.
It is important to note that due to the multiple benefits obtained from the wood of this type of biome, logging has been managed in an uncontrolled way, which has generated an imbalance in these spaces, seriously affecting the ecosystem and ecological life, endangering their integrity.