Types of Bacteria and Their Names Definition and Characteristics

Bacteria are a type of microorganism that lives in every environment on the planet. In fact, it is estimated that there are 10 times more bacterial cells than human cells on Earth! There are many different types of bacteria and each has its own unique features. Some bacteria can be harmful to people while others make our food taste better or protect us from disease-causing germs.

Types of Bacteria

Types of Bacteria

There is a vast amount of bacteria under the world, and it’s entirely possible that some bacteria haven’t even been discovered yet.

to know different kinds of bacteria we need to resort to their taxonomic classifications on the basis of microbiology science. this branch of biology provides a detailed study of bacteria and differentiates the three types of bacteria on the basis of cell wall rigidity and morphological structure which are as follows:

  • Cocci (having spherical or oval shapes).
  • Bacilli (having rod-shaped or cylindrical, both straight and curved).
  • Spirilla (having spiral shape).

Let’s discuss each of the above in detail..!

What is Cocci Bacteria (Types of Bacteria)?

Cocci bacteria have the ability to stick to other cells with which they come into contact. The presence of these slender, elongated cocci is a significant feature of normal flora found in the body and on living surfaces.

They are generally spherical or oval in shape and are heat sensitive, motile, and possess an outer capsule that protects them as it travels through their environment.

After division, the bacteria can be falling down along with the other cells that stay in close proximity not to lose their cellular independence. In this way, a bacterial chain is a certain number of limited bacterial chains and an unlimited bacterial chain.

  • A single plane of division: diplococci or chain cocci (genus Streptococcus).
  • Multiple division planes: grouping of cocci in tetrads or clusters (genus Staphylococcus).

on the basis of single plane and multiple plan division, these types of bacteria have some common worldwide names for different diseases such as:

  • Streptococcus pyogenes (tonsillitis).
  • Streptococcus mutans (cavities).
  • Haemophilus influenzae (flu).
  • Neisseria gonorrhoea (gonorrhea).
  • Neisseria meningitidi (meningitis).
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae(pneumonia).
  • Staphylococcus aureus (osteomyelitis).

with this, let’s move to the next type of bacteria.

What are Bacilli Bacteria?

Bacilli come in many different sizes, shapes, and colors. Some may be longer than others or take on certain shapes and colors.

Many of these properties are useful for the scientific community when it comes to making important distinctions about the bacterial population that is typically present within human intestines if you were to check under a microscope.

The group of organisms known as bacilli is made up of different subtypes of bacteria based on their cell length and physical structure. These subtypes include:

  • Short, irregularly shaped rods (coccobacilli).
  • Long rods with wavy ends (genus Bacillus).
  • Curved comma-shaped rods (genus Vibrio).
  • Bacilli are grouped in filament-forming Chinese letters (genus Corynebacterium).

Within the group of bacteria that make up bacilli, there are various examples of organisms that maintain both harmful and beneficial relationships with other living creatures.

Bad or Disease-causing Bacteria:

  • Bacillus anthracis(cutaneous anthrax).
  • Vibrio cholerae(anger).

Bacilli Bacteria that are beneficial to animals:

  • Lactobacillus casei.
    Lactobacillus acidophilus.
    Lactobacillus bifidus.

which leads us to the third type.

What is spirilla Bacteria?

Under the microscope, spiral-shaped bacteria of the spirilla group are recognizable by their characteristic shape and it is possible to distinguish subgroups based on the number of spirals and morphology.

A helical spiral (e.g. spirochetal microorganisms) have a rigid structure while corkscrew-shaped spirals (e.g. spirilla) have a more flexible structure; this latter morphological structure is common among species known as “spirochete bacteria.”

The following are examples of notorious types of bacteria that have a helical structure and the resulting diseases associated with them:

  • Treponema pallidum (syphilis).
  • Borrelia (causes fever and infections in humans and other animals, using ticks, lice, and other invertebrates as vectors of infection).
  • Leptospira (leptospirosis or Weill’s jaundice).

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